BIOS

Allikas: Traadita Wiki by Jan & Co.

BIOS e. Basic Input/Output System e. Põhiline sisend-/väljundsüsteem

On isiklikesse arvutitesse ehitatud programm, mis käivitab operatsioonisüsteemi, kui oma arvuti sisse lülitate. Seda kutsutakse ka süsteemi riistvaraks. BIOS on osa teie arvuti riistvarast ja see on OP süsteemist eraldi.

Protseduurid on sõltuvalt BIOS'i tootjast erinevad. Tavaliselt peate vajutama klahvi (näiteks F2, F12, DEL, ESC) klahvide kombinatsiooni kohe peale arvuti käivitamist, kuid seda enne, kui Windows käivitub. Lisateabe saamiseks vaadake teavet, mis oli lisatud teie arvutile või minge arvutitootja veebisaidile.

Tavaarvutid

Award                       Bios setup Del  - Lan boot Shift+F10
AMIBIOS                     Bios setup F2   - Boot change F11

Laptopid

Asus Laptops                Bios setup F2   - Boot change ESC,F12
Dell D800, M1530, Vostro    Bios setup F2   - Boot change F12
Fuijitsu Amilo              Bios setup F2   - Boot change F12
HP DV6000 (Phoenix), G6     Bios setup F10
HP G6                       Bios setup F10  - Diagnostic  F2
HP 9010                     Bios setup F2   - Boot change F12
IBM X24, X32, Z60t          Bios setup F1   - Boot change F12
Microlink                   Bios setup F2   - Boot change F12   
Thosiba A300                Bios setup F2   - Boot change F12
Packard Bell                Bios setup F1,F2- Boot change F12

Alglaadimise käik:

1.  Toitebloki käivitamine ja initsialiseerimine 
2.  BIOS ROMi aadress FFF0h ütleb prosele, mis edasi saab. 
3.  POST – power on self test – kas põhilised tükid on olemas 
4.  Otsitakse videokaarti BIOSt ja käivitatakse tavaline BIOS 
5.  Kontrollitakse, kas teisel seadmetel on ka BIOS 
6.  BIOS näitab startup screeni 
7.  mälu ja controllerite testid 
8.  ressursside kokkuarvamine 
9.  kui BIOS toetab PnP-d jagatakse seadmetele ressursid välja 
10.  Summary screen – pordid mälud kettad. 
11.  Otsitakse seadet, kust op. süsteem bootida 
12.  Otsitakse üles MBR või boot sector 
13.  Normaalsel käivitusel võtab op.süsteem üle. 
14.  Juhul kui ei leitud booditavat koodi järgneb veateade.

Biosi vea koodid

HP and Compaq All-in-One and HP TouchSmart Desktop PCs.

Beeps	Description
-------------------------------------------
1 short beep and 1 long beep	Memory problem
2 short beeps and 1 long beep (repeats 5 times)	Unable to initialize video or video card required but not installed
3 short beeps and 1 long beep	CPU configuration error or CPU type is not compatible

The following beep codes can occur while restoring, flashing or updating the BIOS:

Beeps	Description
---------------------------------------------
1 short beep	Legacy floppy drive or CD/DVD drive not detected
2 short beeps	Floppy diskette or compact disc not detected
3 short beeps	Unable to start flashing (such as when missing a utility or BIOS image)
4 short beeps	Flashing failed (checksum error, corrupted image, etc.)
5 short beeps	BIOS recovery successful

Dell Inspiron 15R (7520) Beep Codes

# of Beeps 	Description 	Possible Cause(s)
------------------------------------------------------------
1 	BIOS ROM checksum in progress or failure 	- System board failure, covers BIOS corruption or ROM errors.
2 	No Memory (RAM) detected 	                - Memory or Memory slot failure
3 	chipset Error (North and South bridge error, DMA/IMR/Timer error)
       Time-Of-Day Clock test failure
       Gate A20 failure
       Super I/O chip failure
       Keyboard controller test failure                - System board failure

4 Memory read / write failure - Memory failure 5 Real Time Clock (RTC) power fail - CMOS battery failure 6 Video BIOS test failure - Video subsystem failure 7 CPU Cache test failure - Processor failure or motherboard failure 8 LCD - LCD failure

    Most Common Fixes:
   1 Beep: Replace the motherboard / system board.
   2 Beeps: Reseat the memory or replace the memory.
   3 Beeps: Replace the motherboard / system board.
   4 Beeps: Reseat the memory or replace the memory.
   5 Beeps: Replace the CMOS battery.
   6 Beeps: Reseat or replace the video card or replace the motherboard / system board.
   7 Beeps: Reseat or replace the CPU or replace the motherboard.
   8 Beeps: Reseat the LCD cable or replace the LCD screen.

Beep codes for American Megatrends, Inc (AMI) BIOS

Beeps	Description
-----------------------------------------------
1	Memory timing failure
2	Memory parity error
3	Memory read or write failure
4, 5, 6, 7	Fatal errors related to the operation of critical motherboard components - such as the CPU.
8	Video memory

The following AMI beep codes can occur when there is a problem during the attempt of a normal system startup.

The following table lists AMI beep codes that can occur when attempting to flash or recover the BIOS. You can use these codes to help troubleshoot problems related to system startup or flashing BIOS memory (such as in BIOS upgrades).

Number of beeps	Post code
----------------------------------------------------
1	No media detected
2	ROM file not found in root directory
3	Insert next media volume
4	Flash Programming successful
5	Failure while reading file
7	Flash EPROM not detected
10	Failure while erasing flash memory
11	Flash program error
12	Problem with ROM file size
13	ROM image does not match BIOS requirements


Beep codes for Phoenix BIOS

Four series of beeps indicate a fatal error; that is, a problem exists which prevents the computer from starting. For example, there might be two beeps, a short pause, one beep, a short pause, one beep, a short pause, and then three beeps; this is represented as 2-1-1-3 in the chart below.

Beeps	Post Code	Description of failure
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
One short beep	0	POST process completed successfully - normal startup
1-1-1-3	02h	Verify real mode
1-1-2-1	04h	Get CPU type
1-1-2-3	06h	Initialize system hardware
1-1-3-1	08h	Initialize chipset registers with initial POST values
1-1-3-2	09h	Set in POST flag
1-1-3-3	0Ah	Initialize CPU registers
1-1-4-1	0Ch	Initialize cache to initial POST values
1-1-4-3	0Eh	Initialize I/O
1-2-1-1	10h	Initialize Power Management
1-2-1-2	11h	Load alternate registers with initial POST values
1-2-1-3	12h	Jump to UserPatch0
1-2-2-1	14h	Initialize keyboard controller
1-2-2-3	16h	BIOS ROM checksum
1-2-3-1	18h	8254 timer initialization
1-2-3-3	1Ah	8237 DMA controller initialization
1-2-4-1	1Ch	Reset Programmable Interrupt Controller
1-3-1-1	20h	Test DRAM refresh
1-3-1-3	22h	Test 8742 Keyboard Controller
1-3-2-1	24h	Set ES segment register to 4 GB
1-3-3-1	28h	Autosize DRAM
1-3-3-3	2Ah	Clear 512K base RAM
1-3-4-1	2Ch	Test 512 base address lines
1-3-4-3	2Eh	Test 512K base memory
1-4-1-3	32h	Test CPU bus-clock frequency
1-4-2-1	34h	CMOS RAM read/write failure
1-4-2-4	37h	Reinitialize the chipset
1-4-3-1	38h	Shadow system BIOS ROM
1-4-3-2	39h	Reinitialize the cache
1-4-3-3	3Ah	Autosize cache
1-4-4-1	3Ch	Configure advanced chipset registers
1-4-4-2	3Dh	Load alternate registers with CMOS values
2-1-1-1	40h	Set Initial CPU speed
2-1-1-3	42hs	Initialize interrupt vector
2-1-2-1	44h	Initialize BIOS interrupts
2-1-2-3	46h	Check ROM copyright notice
2-1-2-4	47h	Initialize manager for PCI Options ROMs
2-1-3-1	48h	Check video configuration against CMOS
2-1-3-2	49h	Initialize PCI bus and devices
2-1-3-3	4Ah	Initialize all video adapters in system
2-1-4-1	4Ch	Shadow video BIOS ROM
2-1-4-3	4Eh	Display copyright notice
2-2-1-1	50h	Display CPU type and speed
2-2-1-3	52h	Test keyboard
2-2-2-1	54h	Set key click if enabled
2-2-2-3	56h	Enable keyboard
2-2-3-1	58h	Test for unexpected interrupts
2-2-3-3	5Ah	Display prompt "Press F2 to enter SETUP"
2-2-4-1	5Ch	Test RAM between 512 and 640k
2-3-1-1	60h	Test expanded memory
2-3-1-3	62h	Test extended memory address lines
2-3-2-1	64h	Jump to UserPatch1
2-3-2-3	66h	Configure advanced cache registers
2-3-3-1	68h	Enable external and CPU caches
2-3-3-2	69h	Initialize SMI handler
2-3-3-3	6Ah	Display external cache size
2-3-4-1	6Ch	Display shadow message
2-3-4-3	6Eh	Display non-disposable segments
2-4-1-1	70h	Display error messages
2-4-1-3	72h	Check for configuration errors
2-4-2-1	74h	Test real-time clock
2-4-2-3	76h	Check for keyboard errors
2-4-4-1	7Ch	Set up hardware interrupts vectors
2-4-4-3	7Eh	Test coprocessor if present
3-1-1-1	80h	Disable onboard I/O ports
3-1-1-3	82h	Detect and install external RS232 ports
3-1-2-1	84h	Detect and install external parallel ports
3-1-2-3	86h	Re-initialize onboard I/O ports
3-1-3-1	88h	Initialize BIOS data area
3-1-3-3	8Ah	Initialize extended BIOS data area
3-1-4-1	8Ch	Initialize floppy controller
3-2-1-1	90h	Initialize hard-disk controller
3-2-1-2	91h	Initialize local-bus hard-disk controller
3-2-1-3	92h	Jump to UserPatch2
3-2-2-1	94h	Disable A20 address line
3-2-2-3	96h	Clear huge ES segment register
3-2-3-1	98h	Search for option ROMs
3-2-3-3	9Ah	Shadow option ROMs
3-2-4-1	9Ch	Set up Power Management
3-2-4-3	9Eh	Enable hardware interrupts
3-3-1-1	A0h	Set time of day
3-3-1-3	A2h	Check key lock
3-3-3-1	A8h	Erase F2 prompt
3-3-3-3	Aah	Scan for F2 key stroke
3-3-4-1	AChP	Enter SETUP
3-3-4-3	Aeh	Clear in-POST flag
3-4-1-1	B0h	Check for errors
3-4-1-3	B2h	POST done--prepare to boot operating system
3-4-2-1	B4h	One beep
3-4-2-3	B6h	Check password (optional)
3-4-3-1	B8h	Clear global descriptor table
3-4-4-1	BCh	Clear parity checkers
3-4-4-3	Beh	Clear screen (optional)
3-4-4-4	BFh	Check virus and backup reminders
4-1-1-1	C0h	Try to boot with INT 19
4-2-1-1	D0h	Interrupt handler error
4-2-1-3	D2h	Unknown interrupt error
4-2-2-1	D4h	Pending interrupt error
4-2-2-3	D6h	Initialize option ROM error
4-2-3-1	D8h	Shutdown error
4-2-3-3	Dah	Extended Block Move
4-2-4-1	DCh	Shutdown error
4-2-4-3	Deh	Keyboard Controller Failure
4-3-1-3	E2h	Initialize the chipset
4-3-1-4	E3h	Initialize refresh counter
4-3-2-1	E4h	Check for Forced Flash
4-3-2-2	E5h	Check HW status of ROM
4-3-2-3	E6h	BIOS ROM is OK
4-3-2-4	E7h	Do a complete RAM test
4-3-3-1	E8h	Do OEM initialization
4-3-3-2	E9h	Initialize interrupt controller
4-3-3-3	Eah	Read in bootstrap code
4-3-3-4	Ebh	Initialize all vectors
4-3-4-1	Ech	Boot the Flash program
4-3-4-2	Edh	Initialize the boot device
4-3-4-3	Eeh	Boot code was read OK 


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